Module 22: Foundational Doctrine Part 2
Module Guide: Romans - Christ the Salvation of God; and Galatians - Christ the Emancipator
This pre-read guide is taken from the public domain source "The Analysed Bible in 3 Volumes" by G. Campbell Morgan.
Of the founding of the church at Rome we have no authentic details. The hypotheses are, that it was one of the earliest churches; that it was founded by "sojourners from Rome" who were present on the day of Pentecost and carried the evangel to the imperial city, and thus the church was planted; that Paul wrote this letter in Corinth during his three months' stays there after the uproar in Ephesus; and that Phoebe's approaching visit to Rome (16:1,2) offered him the opportunity of sending it to the church there.
This letter is the foundation document of the Pauline system of teaching. It is intended to set forth clearly God's way of salvation for ruined man. The argument falls into two main parts, the first dealing with the Gospel unto Salvation (1:16-11:36); the second dealing with the Transformation by Salvation (12-15:13). These are preceded by an Introduction (1:1-15), and followed by a Conclusion (15:14-16:27).
The writer introduced himself as an apostle of Jesus, and greeted his readers as "beloved of God, called saints." He then declared his personal interest in them, telling them how he thanked God for them, made mention of them in his prayers, and longed to see them. Pre-eminently conscious of how strategic a point for the Kingdom of God Rome was, he earnestly desired to see them that he might impart "some spiritual gift." As that was impossible, he wrote this letter. In this connection he wrote those ever-memorable and illuminative words which declared him to be a debtor, and ready to discharge his debt.
The Gospel unto Salvation
This first division of the letter opens with a fundamental affirmation, and then proceeds to discuss, the condemnation which made the Gospel necessary; the salvation, of which the Gospel was the message; and finally, certain objections likely to be raised in the minds of the Hebrew readers.
The fundamental affirmation declares the gospel to be one of power, that is, equal to accomplishment, and therefore infinitely more than the presentation of an ideal, or the enunciation of an ethic. The one condition upon which this power hecomes operative is indicated in the phrase, "to every one that believeth." The nature of the provision which the Gospel announces is that of righteousness at the disposal of unrighteous men.
In dealing with the condemnation which made the Gospel necessary the apostle commenced with the Gentiles. After announcing the general principle that "the wrath of God is revealed ... against ungodliness and unrighteousness," he proceeded to declare the measure of Gentile knowledge to be that of the revelation of the poAver and Divinity of God through created things. Their sin consisted in the fact of "holding down the truth in unrighteousness," in that they deified that which revealed, instead of worshipping the One revealed. Their judgment consisted in their being abandoned to their own sin of refusing to act upon the measure of light received.
The Jew is next described as one who condemned Gentile sins under the impression that the possession of the law ensured some kind of benefit to him. All such confidence is swept aside as the Jew is charged with practising the evils which he condemns. The failure of the Jews is then stated in greater detail. They did actually possess in the law the form of knowledge and truth. By a series of questions the apostle inferentially charged them with actual failure in conduct, and so with the sin of blaspheming the name of God among the Gentiles; finally declaring that a Jew who is merely one outwardly, is not a Jew. He then turned to a brief discussion of certain objections which would almost inevitably be raised. First, "What advantage then hath the Jew?" to which he replied, "Much every way," and then spoke of one - that they were entrusted with the oracles of God. To the inquiry, if faith failed on the part of man would God be unfaithful, he replied that it is impossible for God to be unfaithful, but showed that His faithfulness is to His own character; and that if a man sin. He judges him; if he repent, He forgives him.
He then includes both Jew and Gentile, and utters an appalling verdict concerning the whole race in the quotation of a series of passages from the Old Testament. The whole world is guilty.
In dealing with the Gospel message the first subject is that of justification. The scheme is first summarized. To the condemned race "a righteousness of God hath been manifested," which is at their disposal. It is witnessed by the law and the prophets. It is appropriated by the faith of any, "for there is no distinction." In the development of the theme the apostle dealt more explicitly with the consequent facts, namely that the righteousness of God is at the disposal of those who believe. The charge against the race is repeated, "All have sinned." Immediately the provision of grace is announced. That provision operates through the medium of redemption, accomplished by Christ Jesus, through propitiation in His blood. Thus the work of the Cross is set at the heart of this evangel of salvation, and is seen to be a fulfilment of God's purpose, by God's Son, for the vindication of God's righteousness, in the action of God's forbearance. The condition of human appropriation is that of faith in Jesus. This evangel is founded upon eternal justice. Justification is the act of God, through Christ, in response to faith. The apostle declared that this method of imputed righteousness in response to faith was in harmony with the whole history of Israel. This he illustrated at length from the history of Abraham.
The values or privileges of justification are dealt with under two heads, those experienced by the individual believer, and those at the disposal of the race. The privileges of the individual believer are intimately connected with the essential things of God, grace and glory, which Christ came to reveal. They carry a twofold responsibility; that of a peace with God, which means the end of controversy, and that of rejoicing, which is based upon the certainty of His ultimate victory. The effect of this new relationship to God is that all life is changed, and even tribulation becomes the minister of progress. The values of justification, as at the disposal of the race, are set forth by a contrast between the first and last Adam. As far as the evil results of the first Adam's sin have spread, so far do the benefits of the last Adam's work extend. By faith in the last Adam, man can be set free from the effects of the disobedience of the first Adam. By continuity in the disobedience of the sins of the first Adam, man is excluded from the values of the work of the last Adam.
Sanctification is the experimental appropriation of the virtue, as well as the value, of the work of Christ. In the last section the opposing principles of action were seen to be, faith in Jesus, and continuity in sin. The question is now^ asked. Can these both govern life? This is answered by insistence upon the fact of the believer's identification with Christ in death, and in life, and the responsibilities of such identification. The negative responsibility is declared first, "even so reckon." Sin is not to reign in the mortal body. The mastery of the life by the desires of the flesh is no longer necessary, by reason of the new life possessed in Christ. The positive responsibility is that of presenting ourselves as "alive from the dead." This new obligation resting upon the believer is then illustrated by the figures of the bond-slave, and marriage. The servant of sin is the slave of sin. The servant of righteousness is the bond-servant of righteousness. The believer is freed from the covenant of law by death, and brought into new covenant with Christ by life. The death which frees him, is the death of Christ; the life which enables him, is the life of Christ. A change of masters will produce a change of service, and a change of covenant changes the centre of responsibility.
This argument is then illustrated by one of the great personal and experimental passages of the Pauline writings. The pronouns change from the plural to the singular. The apostle gives a picture of his religious experience up to the time of his meeting with Christ; his condition before law, his experience at the coming of law, and his subsequent experience under law; all of which prepares the way for the description of the new experience of such as are not under law but under grace. From the fearful sense of condemnation they pass into the consciousness of no condemnation. From the slavery of the law of sin and death they emerge into the law of the spirit of freedom and life. Then follows a detailed contrast between life in the flesh, and life in the spirit.
Glorification is dealt with by an onward look from the midst of that suffering to which Paul had already referred. The apostle first suggested, and then declined, a comparison between the sufferings and the glory. In the light of the accomplished redemption, the apostle sees all things working together, even through processes of pain which express themselves in groaning, toward the ultimate good. That pain of Nature is the consciousness of the saint, but finally and supremely that of God Himself. This assurance issues in the triumphant challenge of the believing soul to all the forces which can possibly be against it; and the unfolding of God's plan of salvation ends with the cry of an assured triumph.
The certainty of no separation creates the sorrow of fellowship with Christ in the presence of the need of man. Its first expression, in the case of the apostle, was toward his brethren after the flesh. After an enunciation of glorious facts concerning Israel, facing their present condition, he was conscious that it appeared as though the Word of God had come to nought. This was not so, because the promises made were not to a people after the flesh. The purpose of election was character, and its principle was the mercy and compassion of God. God exercises that mercy toward those who believe. The apostle then selected an illustration from the opposite condition, that namely of the wilful hardening of the heart against God, and shows how God finally hardened the man who had persistently hardened himself. The sovereignty of election was then insisted upon by the use of the ancient figure of the potter; and finally the declaration was made that the Gentiles are chosen to become a people of God, because they attain righteousness by faith, while Israel failed as a nation, through seeking to establish righteousness apart from faith. Thus the choice of God is of such as believe. The test is the Son of His love.
Again declaring his affection for his own people, and his desire for their salvation, the apostle proceeded to discuss the way of return. Israel had been rejected because of her rebellion, in spite of the fact that the hands of God had been spread out continuously toward her. The original purpose of God, however, is retained. A temporary casting off of the nation after the flesh, and the bringing in of the Gentiles is in itself a movement toward the ultimate fulfilment of the original Divine intention. He then solemnly warned the Gentile Christians that if God spared not natural branches, neither will He spare those grafted in, save upon the one condition of belief. Unbelieving Israel had been rejected as a nation, in order that the outside world which they failed to bless might receive salvation. Through the accomplishment of that larger purpose, blessing would return to Israel. The doxology which follows forms the conclusion of the whole doctrinal statement of the epistle.
Transformation. By Salvation
The second division of the letter opens with an inclusive final appeal, which the apostle proceeds to apply in a description of the transformed life, in its simplicity, submission, and sympathy.
The word "therefore" links all that is now to be said with everything that has already been said. Because of the grace of God the believer is called to certain attitudes and actions. The first of these is that of personal abandonment to God. Man, essentially a spirit, is to make his own body the sacrificial symbol of his worship. The spirit is evidently God's; the body is therefore presented to God; the mind is thus renewed according to the will of God.
One of the first and positive proofs of abandonment to the will of God is the character of humility. The test of humility is the consciousness of communion. To illustrate this the apostle uses the figure of the body, wherein the importance of each member is measured by its contribution to the whole. A list of gifts, bestowed as within the one body of Christ, is then given. The character of humility finally expresses itself in the conduct of simplicity. Love is to be without hypocrisy; that is, without acting; that is, simple.
Submission to authority was specially necessary for Christians living in Rome at the time of the writing of this letter. Yet the apostle so stated it as to leave clearly in view the abiding principles rather than the local colouring. The first law in the life of the Christian is his abandonment to the will of God. When earthly authority is exercised in harmony therewith, obedience is enjoined. Necessarily, therefore, when authority comes into conflict with Divine laws the Christian must refuse to obey, even at the cost of suffering. Abandonment to the will of God is evidenced, moreover, before the world at large by the discharge of all just debts. The incentive to realization of the surrendered life is that the children of the Lord are to walk as in the day, even though the night is round about them.
The final expression of the surrendered life is that of sympathy, which is first dealt with as toleration. This is illustrated by a discussion of the matter of diet, and the matter of days; and he insists upon the fact that there is but one throne of judgment, and that therefore we have no right to usurp the function in relation to our brethren. Sympathy, however, is more than toleration, it is edification. Therefore the highest principle of freedom is abandonment of a right, if need be, for the good of a weak brother. The one final test, and perhaps the severest test of conduct possible, is enunciated in the words, "whatsoever is not of faith is sin." Yet once more, sympathy is also hospitality. This is inculcated in the injunction, "Receive ye one another." The most powerful line of argument for this conduct is that of the example of Christ.
The epistle being ended as to its statement of doctrine, and the application thereof to life, the apostle turned to personal matters. In the course of this conclusion incidental revelations of his methods and ideals of Christian service occur which are very valuable. Touching and beautiful is his request for the prayers of those to whom he wrote. The section of salutation is full of interest. Twenty-six different persons are named. Two-thirds of the names are Greek, and in all probability are names of persons Paul had actually known in his work in Asia. Throughout these salutations there is manifest the apostle's consciousness of the inter-relationship of the saints as being dependent upon their common relationship to Christ. It is this very consciousness of unity that caused the solemn note of warning as he referred to certain false teachers. Once more he turned to salutations, but this time from those associated with him at Corinth.
The epistle closes with a doxology, in which the apostle refers to that perpetual purpose of love, which, having been kept in silence through ages, had now been manifested in this evangel, in order that through all the coming ages there might rise the song of glory to God; and he reverently ascribed the glory to Whom it was thus evidently due.
PART A: INTRODUCTION - Romans 1:1-1:15
A.1. The Address - Rom. 1:1-1:7
A.2. Personal Interest - Rom. 1:8-1:13
A.3. The Reason of the Letter - Rom. 1:14-1:15
Part B: THE GOSPEL - UNTO SALVATION - Romans 1:16-11:36
Fundamental Affirmation - Rom. 1:16-1:17
B.1. Condemnation. The Gospel Needed - Rom. 1:18-3:20
- The Gentile Condemned - 1:18-1:32
- The Jew Condemned - 2:1-3:8
- The Whole World Guilty - 3:9-3:20
B.2. Salvation. The Gospel Message - Rom. 3:21-8:39
- Justification - 3:21-5:21
- Sanctification - 6:1-8:17
- Glorification - 8:18-8:39
B.3. Objections Discussed - Rom. 9:1-11:36
- Election - 9:1-9:33
- Rejection - 10:1-10:21
- Restoration - 11:1-11:36
Part C: THE TRANSFORMATION - BY SALVATION - Romans 12:1-15:13
Final Appeal - Rom. 12:1-12:2
C.1. Simplicity. Personal Life - Rom. 12:3-12:21
- The Character of Humility - 12:3
- The Consciousness of Communion - 12:4-12:8
- The Conduct of Simplicity - 12:9-12:21
C.2. Submission. Relative Life - Rom. 13:1-13:14
- Definition - 13:1-13:10
- Inspiration - 13:11-13:14
C.3. Sympathy. Relative Life - Rom. 14:1-15:13
- Sympathy as Toleration - 14:1-14:12
- Sympathy as Edification - 14:13-14:26
- Sympathy as Hospitality - 15:1-15:13
PART D: CONCLUSION - Romans 15:14-16:27
D.1. Personal Matters - Rom. 15:14-16:24
D2. Closing Doxology - Rom. 16:25-16:27 (or 14:24-14:26)
Galatia was a district of Asia Minor, and is first mentioned in connection with PauPs second journey. No details are given of his work in this region, but in all probability in connection with that first visit the churches addressed in this epistle were formed. He visited them again, establishing them.
In these brief references, however, no particulars are given concerning them. The letter shows that Judaizing teachers had found their way into the region, and as a result much harm had been wrought among the new converts. These teachers had questioned the apostle's authority, contradicted his doctrine, and so produced conduct contrary to the Christian standard.
The epistle was written with a view to the correction of these errors. After an Introduction (1:1-1:10) it falls into three divisions; an Apology, the Defence of the Gospel (1:11-2:21); an Argument, the Declaration of the Gospel (3:1-4:31); an Appeal, the Demands of the Gospel (5:1-6:10), Conclusion (6:11-6:18).
In the beginning of most of his epistles Paul definitely declared his apostleship. In this instance he defended that declaration more emphatically than in any other introduction. With extreme care both on the negative and positive sides he made his claim. There are no personal salutations, but he does not omit the general salutation of the gospel.
As there are no words of personal salutation, so also there are no expressions of thankfulness for their condition. Instead of the usual "I thank my God," he wrote, "I marvel." The false teachers were perverting the Gospel of Christ. So terrible a thing was this to the mind of the writer that twice in the introduction a curse is pronounced upon those causing the trouble. The line of teaching followed by these men is not definitely stated, but may be gathered by an examination of the epistle. The one thing certain is that it was subversive of the evangel of the Cross, and there is a note of passion in this introduction which runs throughout the whole letter.
An Apology. Defence of the Gospel
In defence of the Gospel the apostle wrote an apology which falls into three parts, the first being a statement of its authority, the second a declaration that such authority was confirmed by conference; and the third, an account of how that authority was maintained in conflict with Peter.
The apostle first enforced the Divine origin and consequent authority of his Gospel by three arguments deduced from his own experience. He had not learned it from others, but had received it by direct revelation from Jesus Christ. He had obeyed its call without consultation. Holding no conference with flesh and blood, not even going up to Jerusalem, he had departed into Arabia. When at last he had come to Jerusalem, it was not for official recognition, but to make the acquaintance of Peter; and his only relation to the church of Judaea was that he gave it occasion of rejoicing in the success attending his work. The Divine element vindicating the authority of his Gospel is clearly marked. There was first the revelation to him of Jesus Christ, by which he received his Gospel; then the revelation in him of the Son of God, which constituted the inspiration and power of his obedience; and finally such revelation through him that the churches of Judaea glorified God in him. The argument of all this is that the authority of his Gospel is demonstrated, by the fact that he received it directly, by the effect it produced on him, and by what it had accomplished through him.
Having thus dealt with the Divine authority of His Gospel the apostle proceeded to claim that that authority was confirmed by a conference which he had with the elders in Jerusalem fourteen years after his conversion. He declared that he went up by revelation in the interests of his work, and because of false brethren. He declared that at that conference the elders of the church imparted nothing to him, nay rather having heard him, they acknowledge the rectitude of his conduct, and the soundness of his positions, and gave to him and his colleague, Barnabas, the right hand of fellowship. Thus the authority of his Gospel was confirmed by conference.
His third argument was that of the maintenance of the authority of his Gospel even in conflict with Peter. The dissimulation of Peter was of so grave a nature that Paul rebuked him before the whole company of believers, urging upon him the necessity for consistency, declaring that it was because the law could not justify that they had put their faith in Christ; thus showing the absolute futility of returning to legal observances and distinctions, from all of which they had already turned. He ended his apology by the great word of personal testimony in which he outlined the Christian life both as to its negative and positive aspect. "Crucified with Christ," "No longer I that live" these declare how the believer has died to law; "Christ liveth in me" "I live in faith" these reveal how, through identification with death, the believer henceforth lives unto God.
An Argument. Declaration of the Gospel
Having thus defended the Gospel, the apostle now proceeded to declare its essential message. This he did by first affirming that justification is by faith; then by showing the relation of the law to this; and finally by illustrative enforcement of the truth.
In affirming that justification is by faith, he appealed first to Galatian experience, describing the course of their spiritual life; Jesus Christ "set forth"; the Spirit received by faith; suffering resulting, and the Spirit supplied, and wonders wrought by faith. Showing that faith was the reason of Abraham's blessing, he declared that the true sons of Abraham are they that are of faith. This affirmation of faith as the condition of blessing, led him to a statement of the alternative, and it is almost startling in its definite clearness. "As many as are under the works of the law are under the curse," for the law curses imperfection, cannot justify, and demands perfection. From this curse of the law Christ, by His Cross, delivers. Thus His Cross becomes the basis of the faith which justifies.
He then proceeded to show the relation of the law to this Gospel. The covenant of faith, based upon a promise, was four hundred and thirty years older than the law; and therefore the law could not make it void, or add to it. The law, then, was a temporary arrangement only until the coming of the Seed, to which it led on, because through faith in that Seed the promise originally made to faith would be realized. Therefore the law exercised discipline, and watched over conduct, and so was a custodian, until Christ by settling the question of sin, created the foundation for faith, and vindicated its confidence. Christ not only opened the prison-house by dealing with sin; He also communicated to those believing, a new life. That new life cancels all old differences. Thus the new-born are Abraham's seed, not according to, or by the way of law, but according to promise. This is the Christian doctrine of liberty from the law.
In illustrative enforcement of the truth, the apostle first instituted a comparison between the old and the new under the figure of the difference between childhood and sonship. Under the old economy men were children, that is, minors. Under the new, God sent forth His Son to provide redemption, and His Spirit to provide regeneration, whereby those trusting become sons, that is majors. On the basis of that contrast he revealed the peril threatening those who turned back to the old, under which God was unknown. In Christ He is known, and to turn back is to return to weak and beggarly elements, that is, to things unable to lift, and poverty-stricken.
At this point the apostle wrote a tender and beautiful personal appeal. Reminding them of the way in which they had received him, he asked, did he become their enemy by telling them the truth; and immediately put into contrast with himself those who had been troubling them, ending his appeal with an outcry like that of a mother.
Then, asking them if they really desired to be under the law, he put the law and the Gospel into contrast, by a comparison between Ishmael and Isaac; the first being the son of the bondwoman, and the second the son of the free woman. Those in Christ are the children of promise, who must therefore cast out the bondwoman.
An Appeal. Demands of the Gospel
The last division of his letter is a great appeal setting forth the demands of the Gospel. In this the writer first declared that freedom must be maintained; then showed that freedom is in order to the realization of purpose; and finally taught that freedom is mutual.
The law of liberty is stated in the opening sentence. Its privilege is described in the words, "For freedom did Christ set us free"; and its responsibility in the positive "Stand fast," and the negative "Be not entangled." The alternatives of entanglement and freedom he then dealt with more fully. The former meant severance from Christ; the latter separation from all the things that spoil. This teaching that freedom must be maintained he concluded with an appeal in which he challenged them as to who had hindered them, and declared his confidence toward them in the Lord.
Continuing, he insisted upon the necessity for remembering that freedom is in order to realization. Their liberty was not intended to be fleshly license, but rather the law of life in the Spirit; and he put into contrast the works of the flesh, and the fruit of the Spirit.
Having thus broadly dealt with the principle, the apostle made some application thereof. The attitude of the free toward failure in others is to be that of gentleness and service toward restoration. The attitude of the free toward those who are burdened, that is, oppressed, weighed down with sorrow or suffering, is to be that of helping to bear such burdens. The attitude of the free toward personal responsibility is to be that of bearing the burden, realizing that none can assist.
After a personal reference, somewhat obscure, but which suggests a physical affliction, making it necessary for the apostle to write in large characters, he summarized the whole subject of the false teachers. The principle upon which they had acted is that of desiring to make a fair show in the flesh in order to escape persecution. As against this, his attitude had been that of glorying in the Cross. He finally pronounced peace and mercy upon such as walked by that rule of glorying, and upon the "Israel of God." The use of this phrase at the close of the letter is suggestive in the light of his argument that the true seed of Abraham consists of the sons of faith, and that the Jerusalem which is from above is the mother of those who are justified by faith.
With a touch of fine independence he wrote, "Henceforth let no man trouble me; for I bear branded on my body the marks of Jesus." The very shame and suffering and persecution which the false teachers would escape, the apostle declared had stamped him with the true insignia of his office. The scars upon his body left by the stripes and the stones spoke of his loyalty to, and fellowship with his Master; and rendered him splendidly independent of all human opinion, and declining to be troubled by any man. The letter closes with a benediction.
INTRODUCTION - Galatians 1:1-1:10
1. Personal Introduction - Gal. 1:1-1:5
- Direct - 1:1a-1:2
- Parenthetical - 1:1b
- Salutation - 1:3-1:5
2. The Occasion of the Epistle - Gal. 1:6-1:10
- Another Gospel - 1:6-1:7
- The Anathema - 1:8-1:9
- The Apostolic Passion - 1:10
Part A: AN APOLOGY - DEFENCE OF THE GOSPEL - Galatians 1:11-2:21
A.1. The Authority of Paul's Gospel - Gal. 1:11-1:24
- Received directly - 1:11-1:12
- Obeyed without Consultation - 1:13-1:17
- Rejoiced in by the Church of Judaea - 1:18-1:24
A.2. Authority confirmed by Conference - Gal. 2:1-2:10
- The Reason of the Going to Jerusalem - 2:1-2:5
- The Happenings at Jerusalem - 2:6-2:10
A.3. Authority maintained in Conflict with Peter - Gal. 2:11-2:21
- The Dissimulation of Cephas - 2:11-2:13
- The Resistance of Paul - 2:14-2:21
Part B: AN ARGUEMENT - DECLARATION OF THE GOSPEL - Galatians 3:1-4:31
B.1. Justification is by Faith - Gal. 3:1-3:14
- An Appeal to Galatian Experience - 3:1-3:5
- Faith the Reason of Abraham's Blessing - 3:6-3:9
- Law cannot justify - 3:10-3:12
- The Cross of Christ the Basis of Faith - 3:13-3:14
B.2. The Relation of the Law - Gal. 3:15-3:29
- The Promise - 3:15-3:18
- The Law - 3:19-3:24
- The Faith - 3:25-3:29
B.3. Illustrative Enforcements of the Truth - Gal. 4:1-4:31
- Childhood and Sonship - 4:1-4:10
- A Personal Appeal - 4:11-4:20
- Ishmael and Isaac - 4:21-4:31
Part C: AN APPEAL - THE DEMANDS OF THE GOSPEL - Galatians 5:1-6:10
C.1. Freedom must be maintained - Gal. 5:1-5:12
- The Law of Liberty - 5:1
- The Alternatives - 5:2-5:6
- The Appeal - 5:7-5:12
C.2. Freedom is to Realization - Gal. 5:13-5:26
- Not Fleshly Licence - 5:13-5:15
- Life in the Spirit is Victory over the Flesh - 5:16-5:26
C.3. Freedom is Mutual - Gal. 6:1-6:10
- One Another's Burdens - 6:1-6:2
- His Own Burden - 6:3-6:5
- Liberality - 6:6-6:10
CONCLUSION - Galatians 6:11-6:18
1. The Conclusion in "large letters" - Gal. 6:11
2. A Summary Contrasting Teachers - Gal. 6:12-6:16
- "They" - 6:12-6:13
- "We" - 6:14-6:16
3. The Apostle's Credential - Gal. 6:17
4. The Benediction - Gal. 6:18
Note: To the best of our knowledge we are of the understanding that the above material, being published in 1907 and freely available elsewhere on the internet in various formats, is in the public domain.