Module 32: The Failure of Human Teaching - God's Authority
Module Guide: Haggai - The Duty of Courage; and Zechariah - The Apocalypse of the Old Testament; and Malachi - Unconscious Corruption
This pre-read guide is taken from the public domain source "The Analysed Bible in 3 Volumes" by G. Campbell Morgan.
Of Haggai's personal history nothing is known, but the dating of his prophecy is very exact. It is noticeable that for the first time a Gentile date is given. Darius reigned during the years B.C. 521-486, so that Haggai's four messages fell within four months in the years B.C. 520-519. For the understanding of the conditions in which he exercised his prophetic ministry the book of Ezra must be studied; a tabulation of the leading events in connection with the return from Babylon will help us thus to place his prophecy.
- B.C. 536. Keturn from Babylon under Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:1-4). Altar built. Sacrifices offered. Feast of Tabernacles.
- B.C. 535. Foundations of the Temple laid. Opposition of Samaritans and cessation of building.
- B.C. 520-519. Prophesying of Haggai and Zechariah. The people recommenced building.
- B.C. 515. The Temple completed.
Thus it will be seen that the work of rebuilding the Temple had ceased, and in order to stir up the leaders and people to their duty in this matter these messages were uttered.
The book is naturally divided by the four messages the prophet delivered: The First Prophecy (1:1-1:11); the Second Prophecy (2:1-2:9); the Third Prophecy (2:10-2:19); the Fourth Prophecy (2:20-2:23).
The First Prophecy
The prophet Haggai delivered his first message on the first day of the sixth month of the second year in the reign of Darius, and it was especially addressed to those in authority. The people were excusing themselves from building by declaring that the time had not come. To this the prophet replied by reminding them that they were dwelling in their own cieled houses, while the house of God was lying waste. He called them to consider their ways, reminding them of the long-continued material failure in the midst of which they had lived. He then urged them to build the house of God, declaring that all the failure to which he had already referred was of the nature of Divine punishment for their neglect of His house. There was an immediate response to the appeal of Haggai, first on the part of the governor and priest, and then by the people. This response was followed, first, by a word of encouragement, in which the prophet declared that Jehovah was with them; and secondly, by new enthusiasm on the part of the people.
About seven weeks later, on the twenty-first day of the seventh month of the same year of the reign of Darius, Haggai delivered his second message. This was addressed to Zerubbabel the governor, Joshua the priest, and all the people. A comparison of Ezra 3:13 with this message will show how certain of the old men who remembered the former house lamented the comparative inferiority of this. Such memory tended to dishearten the people, and the prophet appealed to them to be strong and to work, promising in the name of Jehovah His immediate presence and help. Upon the basis of this promise he then rose to the height of a more gracious one. The central phrase of this larger promise is difficult of interpretation, "The desire (singular) ... shall come" (plural). Perhaps the simplest explanation is to be found in the use made of the connected words in the letter to the Hebrews (12:25-29). It is evident that in this promise there is a revelation of an order of Divine procedure which is manifested in the method of both the first and second advents of the Messiah. That order may thus be briefly summarized: "I will shake;" "the desire shall come;" "peace." Thus the disheartened on account of lesser material glory were called to look for the spiritual glory which would be the crowning splendour of the new. After this prophecy Zechariah delivered a message (Zech. 1:1-6).
About two months later, on the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month of the same year in the reign of Darius, Haggai delivered his third message. In this the people are addressed through a colloquy with the priests. The content of this prophecy shows that after three months of hard building there were still no signs of material rewards, and the people were again disheartened in consequence thereof. As a result of his questioning of the priests and their answers Haggai taught the people that their present obedience could not immediately result in material prosperity because of their past sin. Yet the final word of this third message is a promise of blessing: "From this day will I bless you."
The last message of Haggai was delivered on the same day as the third, and was an enforcement and explanation of the final promise, "I will bless you." It consisted first of a repetition of the declaration of Jehovah's determination to shake, carried out in greater detail, in order to reveal the fact that He would destroy all false authority and power; and finally in the promise of the establishment of true authority.
PART A: FIRST PROPHECY - Haggai 1:1-1:15
- Introductory - 1:1
A.1. The Reason - Hag. 1:2
- Neglect of the Lord's House
- The Time not come
A.2. The Message - Hag. 1:3-1:11
- Their own Houses - 1:3-1:4
- Consider your Ways - 1:5-1:7
- The Reason of Failure - 1:8-1:11
A.3. Historic Interlude - Hag. 1:12-1:15
- Obedience - 1:12
- Encouragement - 1:13
- Enthusiasm - 1:14-1:15
PART B: SECOND PROPHECY - Haggai 2:1-2:9
- Introductory - 2:1-2:2
B.1. The Reason - Hag. 2:3
- The Old Men
B.2. The Message - Hag. 2:4-2:9
- The Call - 2:4a
- The Immediate Promise - 2:4b-2:5
- The Larger Promise (see Zechariah 1:1-1:6) - 2:6-2:9
PART C: THIRD PROPHECY - Haggai 2:10-2:19
- Introductory - 2:10
C.1. The Message - Hag. 2:11-2:18
- Appeal to Priests and Principles Deduced - 2:11-2:13
- Application of Principles - 2:14-2:18
C.2. The Reason - Hag. 2:19a
- The Delay of Blessing
C.3. The Promise - Hag. 2:19b
PART D: FOURTH PROPHECY - Haggai 2:20-2:23
- Introductory - 2:20
D.1. The Reason
- Ratification of Promise "I will bless"
D.2. The Message - Hag. 2:21-2:23
- The Shaking of Authority - 2:21-2:22
- The Establishment of True Authority - 2:23
The association of Zechariah with Haggai has already been seen. Of the prophet himself we are only sure that he was the son of Iddo (Ezra 5:1, 6:14). In the book of Nehemiah reference is made to a priest named Iddo (12:4) and to his son Zechariah (12:16). If these references are to the same persons, Zechariah was also a priest.
The first part of the book is carefully dated, and contains prophecies closely related to those of Haggai, having practical bearing upon the work of the Temple building. The latter part of the book is undated, and deals with three distinct events in the history of the people. The time was all-important. The Messiah had been promised through the chosen nation. Prior to the Edict of Cyrus that nation was practically dead, and, indeed, was being buried in its captivity. This is clearly evidenced by the smallness of the remnant who had interest and enthusiasm enough to return (Ezra 2). Yet through this remnant the coming of Messiah was made possible, as to a human channel. This fact gives us the clue to the difference between the first and the second parts of the prophecy of Zechariah. In the first he urged the people to build the Temple, by prophecies which showed the far-reaching effect of such work in the coming and Kingdom of Messiah. In the latter part he dealt more in detail with certain events leading toward that great future.
The book, therefore, naturally falls into two parts: Messages during the Building of the Temple (1-8); Messages after the Building of the Temple (9-14).
Messages during the Building of the Temple
In this first division there are three messages. The first was local and immediate. The second consisted of a series of visions setting forth God's ultimate purpose for His people Israel. This was followed by a brief historic interlude; and the third message consisted of a threefold answer of Jehovah to an inquiry on the part of the people concerning the observance of certain fasts.
About a month after Haggai's second prophecy, in which he had encouraged the people who were in danger of being disheartened by the memory of the past, Zechariah uttered his first prophetic word. He gave them another view of the past, intended to warn them. He reminded them that Jehovah was sore displeased with their fathers, and warned them not to walk in the same sins. Thus the value of his first message was that from another standpoint he urged the people to be obedient to the message of Haggai. While they were lamenting the departed greatness, they were also to remember how it had been lost, and not repeat the folly. Haggai encouraged them by looking on to the new spiritual glory, while Zechariah exhorted them by looking back to the past of disobedience.
Two months after Haggai had delivered his last message, which was one of hope for the future, as it declared that Jehovah would destroy false authority and establish the true, Zechariah delivered his great message consisting of eight symbolic visions. There are three methods of interpreting these visions. First, that which confines their significance to the times of Zechariah. Secondly, that which spiritualizes very much by application to the Church. Thirdly, that which makes them refer to events still in the future. I adopt the third. The first is untenable because the things declared have not yet been fulfilled. Any attempt to explain the glorious announcements of the defeat of the foes of Israel and her victories, by the poor conditions then existing, and continuing until Messiah, is to suppose the prophet guilty of the wildest and most foolish exaggeration. The second involves exposition in inextricable and endless confusion, for there are things which will not admit of spiritualization. Moreover, to apply to the Church the order and service herein revealed is to contradict New Testament teaching as to her order and service. This series of visions constitutes the Old Testament Apocalypse, or unveiling of God's final dealings with Israel.
Under the figure of the myrtle trees Israel is described as "in the bottom," or, far better, as the margin reads, "in the shady place." It is the day of her overshadowing, but she is yet watched. The whole earth is sitting still and at rest. The angel watcher makes appeal to Jehovah on behalf of Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, and is answered with "comfortable words." These words declare Jehovah's determination to deliver and re-establish His people. This vision therefore is a picture of Israel as she has long been, and still is, outcast from privilege and position, yet never forgotten by Jehovah, Who declares His determination ultimately to return to her with mercies, and to restore her to favour.
The second vision of horns and smiths while indefinite as to detail, yet carries its own explanation. The horn is a symbol of power, and the four stand for the powers which have scattered the chosen people. The smiths are the symbol of that which destroys power, and stand for those who are to break the power of the horns. The vision therefore foretells the ultimate overthrow of Israel's enemies.
The vision of the measuring line reveals the condition of Jerusalem which will result from the overthrow of her enemies. The young man with a measuring line goes forth to measure the restored city, and is prevented from doing so by an angel messenger, who in figurative language declares to him that Jerusalem will be such that it is impossible to measure. The nature of that prosperity is indicated in the statement that the presence of Jehovah will make walls unnecessary, and its extent is declared to be so vast as to make walls impossible. In view of this remarkable vision of ultimate prosperity the prophet uttered his call to the scattered people to return, making the declaration of Jehovah's determination, and calling them to rejoice thereat.
As the first three visions have dealt principally with the material side of Israel's tribulation and restoration, the remaining five deal with her moral and spiritual influence.
The vision of Joshua, first clothed in filthy garments, and then cleansed and charged by the angel of Jehovah, shows how the nation, having failed through sin, is restored by way of moral cleansing to the priestly position and function, of access to God and mediation.
The vision of the candlestick immediately following, sets forth Israel as fulfilling the Divine intention. The candlestick was the symbol of Israel as the light-bearer amid the darkness. The two olive trees refer in the first place to Zerubbabel and Joshua, the governor and the priest, and thus finally to the offices of priest and king as they would be realized and fulfilled in the Person of the Messiah. Through these the Spirit would be communicated to Israel, and so the light would shine.
The vision of the flying roll represents the principle of law as it will be administered by Israel when she fulfils the true ideal. It is the curse upon evil in action and in speech, and that not merely pronounced, but active. Thus while Israel stands as priest mediating, and as lightbearer illuminating, she will also affirm and apply the principle of law in the midst of the earth.
The vision of the ephah shows what will be the result of this application of law. The ephah is the symbol of commerce, and the woman, according to the distinct declaration of the prophecy, is the personification of wickedness. Thus the principle of wickedness is to find its final vantage ground in commerce. This, however, is to be centralized in the land of Shinar, where the tower of Babel was erected, and Babylon was built. The vision teaches that even in the administration of restored Israel, the spirit of lawlessness will still exist, but that it will be restricted in its operations.
The last vision, of the chariots driven from between the mountains of brass, is symbolical of the four winds or spirits of heaven going forth from the presence of the Lord to walk to and fro in the earth, and suggests finally that in the day of restoration the administrative forces of righteousness will be spiritual.
After the delivery of this second message there followed a great symbolic act. Skilled workmen prepared crowns of silver and of gold which were set upon the head of Joshua. To him, thus crowned, the prophet foretold the coming of One Who should fulfil the predictions made in the message of the visions. His office was to be dual — that of priest and king. The crowns which Joshua wore during this ceremony were retained for a memorial in the Temple of the Lord. The final words of the prophet reveal the purpose he had in his heart in all that he had said. It was that the work of Temple building should be continued.
The third message of Zechariah was uttered nearly two years later, on the fourth day of the ninth month of the fourth year of Darius. It was a fourfold answer to an inquiry made by the people concerning the necessity for observing certain fasts. The history of these fasts is contained in 2 Kings 25. One was established in the tenth month, in connection with the besieging of the city. The next occurred in the fourth month, and commemorated the taking of the city. The third was held in the fifth month in memory of the burning of the city, and the last in the seventh month, in which Gedaliah was murdered. The inquiry was confined to the fast of the fifth month, as to whether it was necessary to continue its observance. The answer of the prophet was delivered in four statements of what Jehovah had said to him.
The first of these answers declared that the fasts had been instituted not by Divine command, but entirely upon the initiative of the people themselves. It declared also that they should consider the messages which had been delivered to them before the occasion which gave rise to the fasts of which they now complained.
The second answer reminded them that God sought the execution of justice and the manifestation of mercy, rather than the observance of self-appointed fasts. It also reminded them that they had refused to hear the call of justice, and therefore all the evil things which had befallen the city had resulted. The inference of the answer was, that had they been obedient, the occasion of the fasts would never have arisen.
The third answer was full of grace. It declared that God was jealous for Zion, that He was returned to it, and that therefore its prosperity was assured, notwithstanding the fact that these people saw only the devastation which caused their lamentation. Because of the certainty of this restoration, the prophet appealed to the remnant to be strong and build, promising them in the name of Jehovah, that instead of being a curse, they should become a blessing. Re-aflfirming this Divine intention to restore, the prophet called the people back to the attitudes which the second answer had declared God sought, those, namely, of the execution of justice and the manifestation of mercy.
The final answer to their question was a declaration that Jehovah would turn all their self-appointed fasts into feasts, and that the city, the destruction of which had caused the appointment of these fasts, should become the centre to which many peoples and the inhabitants of many cities should come to seek Jehovah.
Messages after the Building of the Temple
In this second division there are two messages. The first the prophet described as "The burden of the word of the Lord upon the land of Hadrach"; and the second as "The burden of the word of the Lord concerning Israel." The first deals with the rejection of the anointed King, and the second with the enthronement of the rejected King.
The first message is characterized by the prophet's vision of three outstanding events in the future of his people. These are set in the light of the Kingship of Messiah. Each foretelling is merged into, or connected with, the glorious hope of the people of God. The three events referred to are, the coming of Alexander and the protection of the city; the victory of Judah under the Maccabees; the final Roman overthrow of the city and the scattering of the people. These are all related to the Messianic hope. The first merges into a great triumph song concerning the King; part of the prophecy contained therein has now been fulfilled, and part is still unfulfilled. The second passes to a description of Jehovah's triumph through His people, and of all the blessings of His Kingdom; this is wholly unfulfilled. The third is accounted for by the rejection of the true Shepherd when He appeared.
In the first movement the prophet announced the coming of the king. He foretold the preservation of the city of Jerusalem in days when Syria, Phoenicia, and Philistia would be overcome by the enemy, who, acting under Jehovah, would thus execute His judgments upon them. This prophecy was in large measure fulfilled by the coming of Alexander the Great. He captured Damascus and Sidon, and after a siege of seven months. Tyre itself. He then marched against Gaza and razed it to the ground. In the course of this campaign he passed Jerusalem more than once, but never attacked it. Thus, according to the prophecy of Zechariah, the city was preserved for the coming of the King. That coming he then foretold, calling upon Zion and Jerusalem to rejoice, declaring the character of the King, and announcing His complete victory.
The prophet proceeded to describe the King's programme. He foretold a coming triumph for Zion against Greece, under the direct guidance and in the might of Jehovah. This prophecy was fulfilled in the victory gained by Judas Maccabseus over Antiochus Epiphanes. This victory led him to describe the yet greater and final victory of the people of God. He introduced this description by appealing to Zion to ask help of Jehovah, and immediately declaring His intention to accomplish their deliverance. Consequent upon this determination on the part of Jehovah, the people would be strengthened. The prophet finally, speaking in the name of Jehovah, described His re-gathering of the people. "I will hiss for them ... I will sow them ... I will bring them out ... I will bring them into ... I will strengthen them."
The last movement of the message is one in which the prophet described the rejection of the King. He first foretold the coming of judgment under the figure of the Roman fire, devouring the people and spoiling the glory of the false shepherds. The reason of this judgment he then declared to be the rejection of the anointed King. This King is portrayed as having two staves, one called Beauty, which signified grace, and the other Bands, which signified union. This true Shepherd rejected the false, and then was Himself rejected of the people. It is noticeable that the prophet spoke of that rejection from the standpoint of Divine interference. Beauty was cut asunder, the price being thirty pieces of silver, and the result was the breaking asunder of Bands. The result of this rejection of the true Shepherd would be the restoration of the false, and the consequent affliction of the people. The last note of this message pronounced woe upon the worthless shepherds.
Thus the prophet foresaw the Roman victory over the chosen people following their abandonment of their true King.
The second message has to do with things wholly future. The King spoken of in the previous burden, Whose rejection was there foretold, is now seen as coming into His Kingdom. This, the prophet described in two movements, which are complementary. In the first he looked at the opposing nations as they will be dealt with in judgment, and at Israel as she will be restored through the acknowledgment of her true though rejected King, and by her own spiritual cleansing. In the second movement he viewed the same events from the standpoint of the King, beginning with His rejection and then describing His coming, day, process, and administration.
The final victories of the King are described as to the nations and as to Israel. By the strength of Jehovah operating through His people, the strength of the nations is discomfited, and perfect victory is assured. This victory over the nations will issue in the restoration of Israel to supremacy under the government of One Whom they had pierced. This, however, will be brought about when, recognizing their sin, the chosen people repent with mourning. In that day, by way of a fountain opened to them, Israel will be cleansed from all the things which have defiled and degraded her.
The prophet finally described the ultimate victories as to the King, commencing with a description of the smiting of the Shepherd and the scattering of the sheep. In this process of scattering a remnant would be loyal, and they would become the people of Jehovah. The prophet then proceeded to describe the ultimate day of the Lord, which would be ushered in by the coming of Jehovah in the Person of His King to the Mount of Olives. This advent would initiate the new processes of the settlement of the land, and the cleansing of Jerusalem by judgment, to be followed by the establishment of the Kingdom in which all nations would gather to Jerusalem as a centra of worship, those refusing being punished, while all life would be consecrated.
PART A: MESSAGES DURING BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE - Zechariah 1:1-8:23
A.1. The First Message - Zech. 1:1-1:6
- Complementary to Haggai
A.2. The Second Message - Zech. 1:7-6:15
- Of Myrtle Trees. Picture of Israel today - 1:7-1:17
- Of Horns and Smiths. Overthrow of Israel's enemies - 1:18-1:21
- Of measuring Line. Resultant Condition of Jerusalem - 2:1-2:13
- Of Joshua. Israel as a Priest cleansed - 3:1-3:10
- Of Candlestick. Israel according to Ideal - 4:1-4:14
- Of Flying Roll. Government of the Earth - 5:1-5:4
- Of Ephah. Restriction of Wickedness - 5:5-5:11
- Of Chariots - 6:1-6:8
- Historic Interlude Great Symbolic Act - 6:9-6:15
A.3. The Third Message - Zech. 7:1-8:23
- The Questions Asked - 7:1-7:3
- The Fourfold Answer - 7:4-8:23
PART B: MESSAGES AFTER BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE - Zechariah 9:1-14:21
B.1. The Burden of Hadrach - Zech. 9:1-11:17
- The Anointed King Rejected
- The King Announced - 9:1-9:10
- The King's Programme - 9:11-10:12
- The King Rejected - 11:1-11:17
B.2. The Burden of Israel - Zech. 12:1-14:21
- The Rejected King Enthroned
- Final Victories; as to the Nations and Israel - 12:1-13:6
- As to the Nations - 12:1-12:6
- As to Israel - 12:7-13:6
- Final Victories as to the King - 13:7-14:21
- His Rejection - 13:7-13:9
- His Day - 14:1-14:8
- His Process - 14:9-14:15
- His Kingdom - 14:16-14:21
Nothing more is known of Malachi than the book which bears his name reveals. The word Malachi means messenger, and this has given rise to the supposition that it is a title rather than a name. While it is probable that Malachi was indeed the actual name of the prophet, its significance is most suggestive, for throughout the prophecy the burden of the message of Jehovah is supreme, and the personality of the messenger is absolutely hidden.
The connection of this prophecy with the work under Ezra and Nehemiah is evident. The abuses against which Malachi made his protest, namely a polluted priesthood, mixed marriages, and failure to pay tithes, were those which existed during the time of Nehemiah. Malachi is mentioned neither by Ezra nor Nehemiah; probably, therefore, he prophesied after their time. It would seem as though the special evils, which they set themselves to correct, still existed side by side with correct outward observances. The attitude of the people is revealed in the sevenfold "Wherein" (1:2,6,7, 2:17, 3:8,13).
The prophecy falls into three parts: Fundamental Affirmation (1:2-1:5); Formal Accusations (1:6-2:17); Final Annunciations (3-4).
After the introductory word, which really constitutes the Title Page, the message begins almost abruptly with the tender and sensitive word of Jehovah to His people: "I have loved you." This is the real burden of the prophecy; everything is to be viewed in the light thereof.
The prophet then, in an equally brief sentence, indicated the attitude of the people towards Jehovah: "Wherein hast Thou loved us?" The only explanation of such a question possible is that the people, conscious of the difference between their national position and their past greatness, and of the apparent failure of fulfilment of the prophetic promises, called in question the love of Jehovah.
This sceptical question the prophet answered by reminding them of Jehovah's love for Jacob, and His hatred of Esau; of His destruction of Edom, and His deliverance of Israel.
Having thus made his fundamental statement, the prophet proceeded to utter his formal accusations. These fall into three groups, those against the priests, those against the people, and those against the nation in general.
In dealing with the priests, he declared their corruption, and indicated the line of their punishment. He charged them with profanity, in that they had despised the name of Jehovah; with sacrilege, in that they had offered polluted bread upon His altar; with greed, in that none of them were found willing to open the doors of His house for nought; with weariness, in that they had "snuffed at" the whole system of worship as "a weariness." In the study of these accusations against the priests, it is most evident that they resented the charges made against them, as the recurrence of the questions - "Wherein?" - shows. This makes it evident that the prophet was protesting against a formalism which was devoid of reality. Against them he therefore uttered the threatenings of Jehovah. Their blessings were to be cursed, and the punishment of corruption would be that they should be held in contempt by the people. In the midst of this declaration occurs a passage full of beauty, describing the true ideal of the priesthood.
The prophet specifically charged the people with two sins, and in each case pronounced judgment upon them. He introduced this charge by the enunciation of a principle - that of the common relationship of all to God as Father, and the declaration of the consequent sin of dealing treacherously with each other. The first specific sin was that of the mixed marriages of the people, while the second was that of the prevalence of divorce.
The final accusation was against the whole nation, and consisted of a charge of accommodating doctrine to the deterioration of conduct. In the presence of ethical failure, the people were declaring, that notwithstanding the doing of evil, Jehovah delighted in the people, and were inquiring sceptically, "Where is the God of judgment?"
The last division of the book contains the prophet's announcement of the coming of Messiah. It falls into three sections dealing with the coming One, the coming Day, and uttering the closing words.
The prophet announced the advent of Jehovah's Messenger, describing His Person, the process of His administration, and finally declaring the principle of the unchangeableness of Jehovah.
He then appealed to the nation, generally calling them to return, and then making a twofold charge against them of robbery and of blasphemy. To each of these they responded with the same inquiry, "Wherein?" thus showing that the people, like the priests, were observing formalities of religion while deficient of true spiritual life.
In the midst of this wide-spread apostasy there was a remnant yet loyal to Jehovah, which the prophet first described, and then addressed, declaring to them Jehovah's knowledge of them, and determination concerning them.
All this leads to his great declaration concerning the coming Day. This Day he described in its twofold effect. Toward the wicked it would be a day of burning and of destruction. Toward the righteous it would be a day of healing and of salvation.
The closing words of the prophet called upon the people to remember the law of Moses, promised the coming of a herald before that of the day of the Lord, and ended with a solemn suggestion of judgment.
PART A: FUNDAMENTAL AFFIRMATION - Malachi 1:1-1:5
Title Page - Mal. 1:1
A.1. The Sensitive Word of Jehovah - Mal. 1:2a
A.2. The Sceptical Question - Mal. 1:2b
A.3. The Answer in Proof - Mal. 1:2c-1:5
Part B: FORMAL ACCUSATIONS - Malachi 1:6-2:17
B.1. Against the Priests - Mal. 1:6-2:9
- Their Corruption Declared - 1:6-1:14
- The Punishment threatened - 2:1-2:9
B.2. Against the People - Mal. 2:10-2:16
B.3. Against All - Mal. 2:17
Part C: FINAL ANNUNCIATIONS - Malachi 3:1-4:6
C.1. The Coming One - Mal. 3:1-3:18
- Announcement of Advent - 3:1-3:6
- Appeal to the Nation - 3:7-3:15
- Attitude of the Remnant - 3:16-3:18
C.2. The Coming Day - Mal. 4:1-4:3
C.3. The Closing Words - Mal. 4:4-4:6
Note: To the best of our knowledge we are of the understanding that the above material, being published in 1907 and freely available elsewhere on the internet in various formats, is in the public domain.