The Book of Jeremiah - Analysed and Explained in Summary - Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of "The Analysed Bible" by G. Campbell Morgan.
To the best of our knowledge we are of the understanding that this book, taken from Volumes 1, 2, & 3 of the "Analysed Bible" by G. Campbell Morgan published in 1907, and freely available elsewhere on the internet is in the public domain.
JEREMIAH - THE PROPHET OF FAILURE
PART A: THE PROPHETS CALL AND COMMISSION - Jeremiah 1:1-13:27
A1. The Call - Jer. 1:1-1:19
- Title Page - 1:1-1:3
- Personal - 1:4-1:10
- Official - 1:11-1:19
A2. The Commision - Jer. 2:1-13:27
- First Movement - 2:1-6:30
- Impeachment - 2:1-2:37
- Call to Return - 3:1-4:2
- Judgement - 4:3-6:26
- The Prophet Strengthened - 6:27-6:30
- Second Movement - 7:1-9:26
- The Sins of Worship - 7:1-8:3
- Perpetual Backsliding - 8:4-8:17
- The Prophet Strengthened - 8:18-9:26
- Third Movement - 10:1-13:27
- The Sins of Idolatry - 10:1-10:25
- The Broken Covenant - 11:1-11:17
- The Prophet Strengthened - 11:18-13:27
Part B: THE PROPHETS MINISTRY - Jeremiah 14:1-51:64
B1. Prophecies before the Fall of Jerusalem - Jer. 14:1-39:18
- God's Determination to Punish - 14:1-17:27
- God's Absolute Supremacy - 18:1-20:18
- Message to Zedekiah - 21:1-27:22
- Jeremiah and False Prophets - 28:1-29:23
- Prophecies of Hope - 30:1-33:26
- Prophecies of the Seige - 34:1-35:19
- The Story of the Roll - 36:1-36:32
- History of the Seige - 37:1-39:18
B2. Prophecies after the Fall of Jerusalem - Jer. 40:1-45:5
- Against going into Egypt - 40:1-42:22
- In Egypt - 43:1-44:30
- The Word to Baruch - 45:1-45:5
B3. Prophecies concerning the Nations - Jer. 46:1-51:64
- Concerning Egypt - 46:1-46:28
- Concerning the Philistine - 47:1-47:7
- Concerning Moab - 48:1-48:47
- Concerning Ammon - 49:1-49:6
- Concerning Edom - 49:7-49:22
- Concerning Damascus - 49:23-49:27
- Concerning Kedar and Hazor - 49:28-49:33
- Concerning Elam - 49:34-49:39
- Concerning Babylon - 50:1-51:64
Part C: HISTORICAL APPENDIX - Jeremiah 52:1-52:34
Jeremiah was Jehovah's spokesman in days of darkness and disaster. Through great personal suffering he delivered his messages of punishment and of promise with unswerving fidelity, notwithstanding the fact that the people refused to hear or to obey. He was the son of Hilkiah, of priestly family. Whether this was the Hilkiah who discovered the book of the law in the eighteenth year of Josiah's reign, that is, five years after Jeremiah's prophesying commenced, cannot be absolutely decided. It is possible, if not probable.
His ministry extended from the thirteenth year of Josiah to the eleventh of Zedekiah, that is, over a period of forty years. No prophet in all the long and honourable succession had a more thankless work. To stand, the lonely messenger of God, in the midst of the rebellious opposition of his own people, was a task needing the greatest courage. We wrong Jeremiah when we speak of him merely as the prophet of tears, or think of him only as a man haunted by fears. His tears were evidences of his compassion, but his compassion never made him unfaithful to the Divine message. All evidences of weakness were manifested in the presence of God, and never when he stood as God's messenger. Only once was there a momentary failure - in the case of the false word of Hananiah - and this was rather a mistake of judgment than a deflection from the clearly marked path of duty.
The first part of the book gives us the story of his Call and Commission, and the last the account of his Ministry. It may be that the messages in the first part were delivered as they were received, but it is evident throughout that he was being prepared for that more sorrowful and yet weighty ministry which was to follow.
The book thus falls into two parts: the Prophet's Call and Commission (1-13); the Prophet's Ministry (14-51); with an historical Appendix (52).
A. The Prophet's Call and Commission - Jeremiah 1:1-13:27
The first three verses constitute a title-page, naming the author, and giving the dates of the period during which he exercised his ministry.
The call of the prophet was first personal. Over against the "I" of Jeremiah's fear, Jehovah set the "I" of His own omnipotence. The call was then official, and was ratified by the two signs, of the almond-tree, and the seething caldron.
In the commissioning of Jeremiah for his ministry there are three distinctly marked movements, each of which ends with the account of how Jehovah strengthened His servant.
The first movement commences with the command to utter an impeachment of Israel. She was charged with forsaking Jehovah, and with obstinate sinfulness. The impeachment ended by a summary, describing Israel's infidelity and its issue.
Following the impeachment the prophet appealed to the people to return, pointing out the conditions upon which they might do so. This appeal was followed by the recitation of an ideal confession for the sinning people, and ended with the promise of Jehovah that if Israel would return she should be established.
Suddenly the prophet turned to the subject of judgment. He declared that it was determined on, described it, and affirmed its inevitableness. His own anguish was revealed in the course of this declaration. He proceeded to announce the reason of judgment as being their utter corruption of conduct, their unbelief of the prophetic message, and their revolting and rebellious heart. He then foretold, in graphic description, the taking of the city, and the suffering of the people consequent there-upon.
The movement ends with an account of the words spoken by Jehovah to Jeremiah, in order to strengthen him.
The second movement in the commissioning of the prophet deals first with the sins of worship. At the gate of the Temple the prophet rebuked the people for trusting in external forms. So terrible was the condition that he was charged at last not to pray for them. For this idolatry of formalism the sentence of judgment was again pronounced.
The sin of idolatry had been aggravated by their terrible persistence therein. If men fall, it is naturally expected that they will rise; if they wander, that they will return. In the case of Judah this had not been so. The back-sliding had been perpetual, therefore the judgment must be complete.
The strain of the terrible messages upon the prophet now becomes evident as it is seen how he poured out his soul in lamentation. To this cry of His servant Jehovah replied in a five-fold declaration. He had no choice but to afflict, because of their sin. He also suffered. The reason of judgment was that of their persistent rebellion. He called the people to lamentation, but insisted that it should be for right causes. Finally He proclaimed the true ground of glorying for man to be, not his own wisdom or riches, but his understanding and knowledge of Jehovah.
In the third movement in the commissioning of the prophet the sin of idolatry is again dealt with. He revealed its unutterable folly in a powerful contrast between idols and Jehovah. On the sin of idolatry he then pronounced judgment.
There came to the prophet from the Lord a special word commissioning him to pronounce a curse upon "the man that heareth not the words of this covenant." He was to proclaim in the cities of Judah and the streets of Jerusalem the sin of the fathers, and the fact that it was being repeated by their sons. They were guilty of conspiracy against Jehovah in turning back to other gods. Therefore Jehovah visited with judgment.
The closing part of the third movement is occupied with an account of how Jehovah strengthened Jeremiah in view of the persecution which was already stirred against him, and of the yet severer troubles awaiting him. From the midst of peril in Anathoth, Jeremiah appealed to Jehovah to be his Defender, and was answered by the declaration of the Divine determination concerning his evil neighbours. Perplexed, the prophet poured out his soul to God in questions. The answer of Jehovah indicated the fact that the things he had seen, and the trials through which he had passed, were as nothing to those which awaited him. The account of the commissioning of the prophet ends with the story of how Jehovah gave him two signs, one for himself and one for his people.
B. The Prophet's Ministry - Jeremiah 14:1-51:64
The second division of the book contains the account of the prophet's ministry. It falls into three sections: prophecies before the fall of Jerusalem, prophecies after the fall of Jerusalem, and prophecies concerning the Nations.
The prophecies before the fall of Jerusalem open with a declaration of God's determination to punish. This is introduced by a graphic parable of drought, in which the high and the low are alike affected, the whole ground is barren for lack of rain, and all animal life suffers.
Then follows the account of a remarkable controversy between Jeremiah and Jehovah. The prophet appealed to Jehovah repeatedly on behalf of the people. Jehovah replied by forbidding him to pray for them, and declaring His determination to punish them. On hearing this Jeremiah cried out in his anguish, and Jehovah replied by promising to strengthen him for the delivery of his message. This controversy was immediately followed by a new charge to the prophet. He was called to a life of personal asceticism, and commanded to abstain both from mourning and from mirth. He was to stand aloof from the people, in order to deliver to them the messages of God.
Once again Jehovah declared His determination to deal with the people in judgment, because of the defiant definiteness of their sin. This declaration was followed by a contrast between the man who trusts in men, and the man who trusteth in Jehovah. The first dwells in the midst of desert desolation. The second is rooted by the springs of fruitfulness. To these words the prophet replied in a great affirmation of faith, and an equally great appeal of need. He was then commissioned to stand in the gate of the people and offer them the test of the Sabbath, warning them of how their fathers failed in this respect, and declaring to them that if they refused to hearken, the judgment must fall.
The second series of messages before the fall of Jerusalem consists of declarations of God's absolute supremacy. In preparation, Jeremiah was sent to the house of the potter. Power was manifest in the potter's manipulation of the clay in his hand, and pity in his re-making of the marred vessel. The explanation was given by Jehovah Himself. The house of Israel was as clay in His hand, but His will must be accomplished, and they could not possibly escape from Him. The delivery of these messages stirred up new opposition to the prophet, and a conspiracy was formed against his life. He was then commissioned to go forth into the valley of the son of Hinnom, taking with him a potter's vessel, and there to deliver a message of judgment, symbolizing the same by breaking the vessel in the sight of the people. Returning from Topheth, having obeyed the command, he sat in the court of the Lord's House, and repeated the fact of coming judgment.
This action stirred up yet fiercer persecution against him. He was arrested and imprisoned. Out of the midst of these circumstances he poured out his soul in the presence of Jehovah, complaining that he had been the laughing-stock of the people, and had become a reproach and derision. He had declared that he would not speak the word, but it had become a burning fire, and he had been compelled to utter it. The tempest-tossed condition of his mind at this time is seen in his alternating declarations of faith and fear.
The final series before the fall of Jerusalem consists of messages delivered to Zedekiah. The scourge which Jeremiah had foretold seemed to be imminent. Nebuchadrezzar was approaching. Zedekiah sent to inquire whether he might hope for the interference and deliverance of Jehovah. There was nothing halting or unswerving in the prophet's answer. He foretold the disaster in detail.
The message of Jeremiah by the deputation was not enough. He was commanded to go to the house of the king. Arrived at the court, he repeated his call to repentance and his warning. He then reviewed the history of Zedekiah's three predecessors — Jehoahaz (Shallum), Jehoiakim, and Jehoiachin (Coniah), and proceeded to charge the failure of the people first upon the kings. In the Divine economy the king has always been a shepherd; but the men who had held the office had destroyed and scattered the sheep. He then turned to the prophets, and spoke of them out of a broken heart. Their judgment was consequent upon the falseness of the messages they had delivered. They had dreamed their own dreams rather than delivered the word of Jehovah. Jeremiah's acute understanding of the process of the nation's corruption is clearly revealed. False kings and prophets had led the people into courses of evil. The people, in their turn, had willingly listened and followed.
Still speaking to Zedekiah, Jeremiah repeated three prophecies from the past, the first being a vision in Jeconiah's captivity, the second a message delivered in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, and the last delivered in the beginning of Jehoiakim's reign. At this time false prophets were also speaking among the captives and in Jerusalem, and throughout the remainder of Jeremiah's message to Zedekiah he denied the authority and inspiration of these false teachers.
Still speaking to Zedekiah, Jeremiah reminded him of the word which came in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, announcing the judgment of God as determined against Judah, Babylon, the nations, the world. Thus the king would see how inevitable was the doom now threatening himself and Jerusalem.
He then repeated the message delivered in the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim. The priests, the prophets, and the people seized Jeremiah, and condemned him to die. The princes rescued him, and Jeremiah again addressed himself to Zedekiah. Having shown, by his vision of the basket of figs, what was determined against Jiidah, he declared the attitude of Jehovah in the matter. Messengers representing a confederacy of kings for the purpose of resisting Nebuchadrezzar were answered by the declaration that all such attempts would be useless. He then directed his attention specially to Zedekiah, urging him to submit to the king of Babylon.
In the incident between Hananiah and Jeremiah we see the conflict with the false prophets clearly manifest. For the moment Jeremiah was deceived, and permitted Hananiah to take the bar from off his neck and break it. Immediately the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah contradicting all that Hananiah had said. It is evident that the exiles were disturbed by the false prophesying, and Jeremiah sent a letter to them on the subject. He warned them that it was better for them to settle in Babylon, and beware of false prophets. Deliverance was in the purpose of God for them, but it would not be accomplished until after seventy years.
At this point there occurs a series of prophecies whose dominant note is that of hope. These are remarkable from the fact that they were uttered during the time that Jeremiah was in prison, and the condition of affairs in the city was calculated to fill his mind with despair. In the midst of this darkness Jeremiah was granted visions of ultimate restoration, and his messages are therefore full of hope. The first of these may be described as a song, declaring that the people of God, now so overwhelmed with sorrow, should yet ultimately pass through trouble to triumph. In graphic language the prophet described the time of Jacob's trouble, and predicted deliverance. In words that still burn as we read them, he depicted the friendlessness of the forsaken people, and announced their restoration to favour, describing the tempest by which the change would be wrought. The song then merges into a description of the issues of restoration; the city rebuilt, and the people gathered back to it, so that sorrow passes away, and the new contentment with the Divine government and administration is manifest. In that day a new covenant will be made between Jehovah and His people, a covenant not external and material, but internal and spiritual, and universal in application. The song ends with a declaration of Jehovah in which He uses the signs in the heavens as the seal of His promise. The next of the prophecies of hope is introduced by the statement that Jeremiah is imprisoned, and the account of the charge given to liim to purchase the field in Anathoth. This command he obeyed, and then in perplexity inquired of Jehovah what was the use of purchasing a field when the land was wholly given over to judgment. The answer of Jehovah announced the certainty of the judgment which Jeremiah anticipated, but also declared the equal certainty of ultimate restoration, so that the purchase of the field was intended as a sign of the ultimate repossession of the land. The last of the prophecies of hope is a song full of beauty, and full of confidence. It celebrates that ultimate restoration which Jehovah had promised, first as to the gathering of the people and the building of the city, describing a moral and consequent material restoration. This is all to be brought about in the days of the Branch, when the two functions of king and priest shall be restored in the person of one Deliverer. The song ends with the Divine afiirmation, in which Jehovah again uses tlie sign of day and night, and declares His determination to accomplish His purpose in spite of unbelief.
Next in order we have three prophecies delivered while Nebuchadrezzar and his army were round about the city. In the first the prophet foretold the success of Nebuchadrezzar and the consequent fall of Jerusalem, and described the manner of Zedekiah's death. The next is a denunciation of Zedekiah for having broken his covenant with the Hebrew servants. The prophet delivered the message of Jehovah, describing the sin and pronouncing judgment. In the last Jeremiah told the story of how the Rechabites, when put to the test, were true to their vow, and refused to drink. The purpose of the telling of the story was that the prophet might put into contrast with it, the sin of Judah. The sons of Rechab had been true to the command laid upon them by their father. Judah had been untrue to the perpetual messages of Jehovah. Upon Judah, therefore, evil should come, while a gracious promise was made to the Rechabites.
Chapter thirty-six constitutes a break in the historic method of the prophecy, and gives us the account of how the prophecies of Jeremiah against Judah and Jerusalem were committed to writing. In the fourth year of Jehoiakim Jehovah commanded Jeremiah to write. He obeyed by dictating to Baruch. In the following year, the fifth of Jehoiakim, Baruch read the writings in the hearing of all the people. He next read them by special invitation to the princes, who in alarm advised Baruch and Jeremiah to hide. Finally they were read by Jehudi to the king, who in anger mutilated the writings and destroyed the roll. It is possible to mutilate and burn a writing, but not to destroy the word of Jehovah. Jeremiah again dictated, and Baruch wrote, but this time many other words were added.
The final movement in the section of the book devoted to the prophecies before the fall of Jerusalem consists of a history of the siege. Jeremiah is first seen as free. The army of Pharaoh had come forth out of Egypt, and the king hoped that it might aid him against Nebuchadrezzar. Then Jeremiah declared that there was no hope in that quarter. For the moment events seemed to contradict his prophecy, as the army of the Chaldeans fell away. He left the city to go to Benjamin, and was arrested and imprisoned on the charge of falling away to the Chaldeans. After many days' imprisonment Zedekiah sent for him, and to him he delivered the same stern message, foretelling the victory of the king of Babylon. The issue of the interview was that Jeremiah was removed, still as a prisoner, into the court of the guard, and was there supplied with bread. He continued his foretelling of the doom about to fall upon the city, and as a result was cast into a loathsome dungeon. Through the intervention of Ebed-melech he was released from thence. Sadly perplexed, and almost distraught, Zedekiah again sent for him, and the prophet still insisted upon the truth of his declaration that the city should be taken by the Chaldeans. He therefore advised Zedekiah to surrender, and so save the city from burning, and himself from death, warning him that if he refused, even the women of his own household would heap reproaches upon him. The section ends with the story of the fall of Jerusalem, which the prophet had so long foretold. Nebuchadrezzar and his princes forced an entrance, and Zedekiah fled. He, however, was pursued and overtaken, his sons were slain before his eyes, and then his own eyes were put out, and he was bound in fetters and carried to Babylon. This was followed by the sack of the city. In the midst of the rout Jeremiah was protected, undoubtedly as the result of the overruling: of Jehovah, and he was commissioned specially to find Ebed-melech the Ethiopian, who had succoured him, and to declare to him that he also was under Divine protection.
Chapters forty to forty- four tell the story of Jeremiah and his prophesying after the fall of Jerusalem. The first movement in this section gives an account of the events immediately following, and of Jeremiah's protest against going into Egypt. The second chronicles the prophecies in Egypt. Released by Nebuzaradan, Jeremiah joined the remnant remaining in the land under the governorship of Gedaliah, who sought to restore order, urging the people to avail themselves of the privilege granted to them to settle in the land, he promising to abide at Mizpah in order to stand before the Chaldeans. In response to this invitation, many of them gathered from the distant places to which they had been scattered. The governor was warned by Johanan of the plot formed against his life by Ishmael, but he refused to believe the report. Ishmael through the basest treachery carried out his design, slaying Gedaliah and others, and leading captives away to the children of Ammon. Johanan, who had warned Gedaliah of his danger, rescued these captives, compelling Ishmael to flee, and prepared to go into Egypt. Before going, they sought counsel from Jeremiah, asking tliat he should inquire the will of Jehovah, and promising implicit obedience to whatever might be revealed. After ten days he delivered his message, telling them distinctly that the will of God was that they should not go into Egypt, urging them not to be afraid of the king of Babylon, declaring that Jehovah was with them, and that His purpose was one of mercy, and that they should return to their own land. With great solemnity, he warned them that if they went into Egypt, the judgment of God would fall upon them. He moreover charged them with dishonesty, in inquiring from him; and therefore, he foretold the certain judgment of God which would fall upon them.
As Jeremiah had foreseen, his word was not obeyed. They charged him with having spoken falsely under the influence of Baruch, and in rebellion passed over into Egypt. They compelled Jeremiah to accompany them, and his next messages were delivered there. The first of these consisted of a prophecy of the coming victory of Babylon over Egypt. The next was a fiery protest against the persistent rebellion of the people of God, in which he reminded them of the patience of God, of how His anger had already been poured out upon Jerusalem, and declared that the rebellious remnant which had found its way into Egypt should be wholly cut off. This message the men answered by a defiant and persistent word of rebellion, in which they misinterpreted their own history by declaring that all the evils that had fallen upon them had resulted from attacks made upon idolatry, and they deliberately declared their intention to continue their idolatrous practices. To this attitude Jeremiah replied by first answering their argument, declaring that their sorrows were the result of their idolatry, rather than, as they affirmed, the result of their turning from idols. Continuing, he declared that the judgment of God was determined against them, that they should be consumed, and only a small remnant should escape ultimately from Egypt. He ended by declaring that the sign of Jehovah to them should be the defeat of Pharaoh Hophra, and his handing over to those who sought his life.
The messages of Jeremiah to the chosen people end at this point, and there is inserted a special word to Baruch. It is evident that this faithful ally of the prophet had become depressed. He had manifestly hoped for great results, and was at once rebuked and comforted. He was charged not to seek great things for himself ; and promised that his own life should be preserved.
The third and last section of the division containing the prophet's ministry is occupied with his messages concerning the nations. The first of these has to do with Egypt, and consists of two prophecies. The earlier one described the army of Egypt, in its preparation and advance, and declared that this was in reality the coming of the day of the vengeance of Jehovah. In general terms the prophet predicted the doom of Egypt. The second distinctly foretold the defeat of Egypt by Nebuchadrezzar, the king of Babylon. This visitation was that of Jehovah, and the agent was Nebuchadrezzar. The prophecy ends with the message of comfort to Jacob, who, while afflicted, is yet not to be utterly destroyed, but corrected by judgment.
The word concerning the Philistines was a foretelling of the coming against them of a scourge from the north, which would utterly break their power. In figurative language the prophet then described the sorrow which would overtake the proud, yet broken people.
The word of the Lord concerning Moab was one of judgment, which nevertheless closed with a gleam of hope. The judgment was described first from the standpoint of the scourge. The widespread extent of it was foretold, and the affliction and helplessness graphically set forth. The judgment was then spoken of from the standpoint of Moab, that is to say, the long security of Moab, and his freedom from affliction was recognized, as was also his self-confidence. In contrast with this, the judgment was announced. All his past security was to end, and his strength to vanish. Finally, in a long passage, full of tremendous power, the judgment of Moab from the standpoint of the on-looker was described. Surrounding nations were called upon to observe and to lament, while yet they recognized the justice of the judgment, as it was a punishment for Moab for the sin of magnifying himself against the Lord. The prophet himself, observing the judgment, broke out into mourning and lamentation, with sobs describing the desolation, until at last, in one brief sentence, he announced the promise of Jehovah, that finally He would restore the captivity of Moab, and indicated that until that time of the Divine intervention the judgment of Moab must continue.
Against the children of Amnion, Jeremiah raised a protest because their king was in possession of Gad. He declared that by the fierce judgment of war they were to be dispossessed and driven forth. The message ends with a gleam of hope, in which the prophet foretold the bringing again of the captivity of the children of Ammon.
Concerning Edom, destruction was foretold, in spite of her wisdom. The reference to wisdom in Teman would seem to be a satirical literary allusion to the fact that it was the birthplace of Eliphaz, the counsellor of Job. The destruction was described in figurative language, and the prophet declared, that notwithstanding the arrogancy and security of the people, Jehovah would bring them down into the dust. The destruction of Edom was intended to be a warning to the whole earth.
Damascus was described in her decay, and in the destruction determined against her by the Lord of Hosts. This reference to Damascus is brief, for it does not seem that in Jeremiah's time there was anything like intimate relationship of any sort between her and the chosen people. It is evident, however, that as his vision swept the horizon he saw that she also was within the circle of the Divine government, and that judgment was determined against her.
Kedar and Hazor represent the Arab peoples, the former such as were nomadic, the latter those who dwelt at settled centres, and yet not in walled cities. Against both of these Nebuchadrezzar, the king of Babylon, was to be the instrument of judgment.
The prophecy against Elam was one of judgment, ending once more with a gleam of hope. Of Elam nothing can be said with any certainty. It is evident, however, that in the far-reaching vision of Jeremiah she was seen as under the Divine displeasure, and consequently to he visited by the Divine judgment.
The last of the prophecies concerning the nations has to do with Babylon. Throughout the whole of Jeremiah's prophetic utterances, she has been seen as the instrument of God's judgment. Finally, on account of her own sin and corruption, that judgment must inevitably fall upon her. That is the great burden of this message. It is perfectly evident throughout that the prophet had in mind the nations of Judah and Israel, and what he said concerning Babylon had its direct bearing upon these as the people of God. The prophecy falls into two parts, the first foretelling Babylon's doom and Israel's delivery; the second indicating Israel's responsibility in view of this doom determined upon Babylon. In general terms the prophet announced the coming overthrow of Babylon, and described the repentant return of the children of Israel and Judah. He then more definitely described the destruction of the city of Babylon. A confederacy of nations would come against her, and destroy her, and that because she had rejoiced and been wanton in her dealing with the people of God. That people, though scattered and driven away, would be gathered and restored, while the iniquity of Israel and the sins of Judah would be pardoned. The prophecy increased in power as it proceeded, and Jeremiah foretold the completeness of the overthrow. There was to be the utter humbling of her pride, and the absolute destruction of her power. The instrument of the destruction would be a people from the north, but the judgment would be that of the invincible Jehovah. In the second movement the prophet again declared the determination of Jehovah to bring about the complete overthrow of Babylon, in order to ensure the deliverance of His people. To emphasize this, he described the invincible power of Jehovah, as Creator and Sustainer of the world, in the presence of Whom man is vanity. He thereupon described the judgment, first recognizing that Babylon had indeed been an instrument in the hand of Jehovah for the accomplishing of His judgments, but proceeding to declare that Jehovah was now against Babylon, and that therefore she must become a desolation without inhabitant, repeating finally the truth that the purpose of His judgment was the deliverance of His people. Upon the basis of these great declarations Jeremiah, in the name of Jehovah, made his appeal to the people of God, urging them to escape from the midst of Babylon, and declaring again the certainty of her doom. The prophecy concerning Babylon closes with an account of the charge which Jeremiah gave to Seraiah to write these words and read them in Babylon. Here the words of Jeremiah end.
C. Historical Appendix - Jeremiah 52:1-52:34
The last chapter consists of an historical appendix, written, as the final words of the previous chapter show, by another hand. It first repeats in brief form the story of the capture of the city and chronicles the oppression of the people which followed. A list is then given of Nebuchadrezzar's captives, and the story of Jehoiachin's position in Babylon is told.